Type 1 Diabetes
|Diabetes and children statistics:
The risk of developing type 1 diabetes is higher than virtually all other severe chronic diseases of childhood.
Peak incidence occurs during puberty, around 10 to 12 years of age in girls, and around 12 to 14 years of age in boys.
The symptoms for type 1 diabetes can resemble the flu in children.
Type 1 diabetes tends to run in families. Brothers and sisters of children with type 1 diabetes have about a 10 percent chance of developing the disease by age 50.
The identical twin of a person with type 1 diabetes has a 25 to 50 percent chance of developing type 1 diabetes.
What is type 1 diabetes?Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including:
- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
- juvenile diabetes
- brittle diabetes
- sugar diabetes
- idiopathic type 1 - refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause.
- immune-mediated diabetes - an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
What causes type 1 diabetes?The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed that people inherit a tendency to develop diabetes, and that some outside trigger may be involved. Type 1 diabetes is the result of the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. This is the result of an autoimmune process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing cells of the pancreas.
When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood, depriving the cells of nutrition. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood sugar levels.
What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may resemble flu symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms for type 1 diabetes. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Other symptoms may include:
- high levels of sugar in the blood when tested
- high levels of sugar in the urine when tested
- unusual thirst
- frequent urination
- extreme hunger but loss of weight
- blurred vision
- nausea and vomiting
- abdominal pain
- extreme weakness and fatigue
- irritability and mood changes
What can be expected with type 1 diabetes?Type 1 diabetes may cause the following:
- hypoglycemia (low blood sugar, sometimes called an insulin reaction) - occurs when blood sugar drops too low.
- hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) - occurs when blood sugar is too high, and can be a sign that diabetes is not well controlled.
- ketoacidosis (diabetic coma) - loss of consciousness due to untreated or under-treated diabetes.
- heart disease
- kidney disease
- eye problems
- neuropathy (nerve problems)
- foot problems
Treatment for type 1 diabetes:Children with type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to keep the blood sugar level within normal ranges. Specific treatment for type 1 diabetes will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
- appropriate foods (to manage blood sugar level)
- exercise (to lower and help the body use blood sugar)
- regular blood testing (to check blood-sugar levels), as directed by your child's physician
- regular urine testing (to check ketone levels), as directed by your child's physician
Helping your child cope with type 1 diabetes:Depending on your child's age, a type 1 diabetes diagnosis can be devastating. The younger child may not quite understand all the life changes that may occur because of the diagnosis, such as glucose monitoring and insulin injections. After being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, children may feel:
- as if they are being punished.
- fearful of death.
- hostility toward the parent.
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