What is neuroblastoma?Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor. Neuroblastoma is rare in children older than 10 years of age, however, it does occur occasionally in adults.
The tumor usually begins in the tissues of the adrenal gland found in the abdomen, but may also begin in nerve tissue in the neck, chest, and/or pelvis. The adrenal glands are positioned on top of the kidneys. These glands secrete hormones and other important substances that are required for normal functions in the body.
In the US, approximately 650 children are diagnosed with neuroblastoma each year. It is often present at birth, but not detected until the tumor begins to grow and compress the surrounding organs. Most children affected by neuroblastoma have been diagnosed before the age of 5. In rare cases, neuroblastoma can be detected before birth by a fetal ultrasound. It is the most common solid tumor cancer in infants.
Neuroblastoma cancer cells can spread (metastasize) quickly to other areas of the body (i.e., lymph nodes, liver, lungs, bones, central nervous system, and bone marrow). Approximately 70 percent of all children diagnosed with neuroblastoma will have some metastatic disease.
What causes neuroblastoma?The only risk factor that has been established for neuroblastoma is heredity, although the vast majority of neuroblastomas are not inherited. Recent research indicates that a common genetic variation on chromosome 6p doubles the risk of this disease. Also, having this particular variation increases the chance that a child will develop a more aggressive form of the disease.
The average age at diagnosis in genetically linked cases is around nine months. When the cancer presents in several different areas of the body at once, this suggests it may be a genetically inherited cancer.
What are the symptoms of neuroblastoma?The following are the most common symptoms of neuroblastoma. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The symptoms of neuroblastoma vary greatly depending on size, location, and spread of the tumor. Symptoms may include:
- abdominal mass, either felt during an examination or seen as swollen abdomen
- tumors in the face or head can cause swelling and bruising of the area around the eyes and uncontrolled eye movement
- compression of kidney or bladder by the tumor may cause changes in urination
- bone marrow involvement may present as pain, limping, paralysis, or weakness
- diarrhea may be present; diarrhea is caused by a substance produced by the tumor (vasoactive intestinal peptide, or VIP)
- high blood pressure and increased heart rate may occur depending on location of tumor and the organs the tumor compresses
How is neuroblastoma diagnosed?In addition to a complete medical and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for neuroblastoma may include the following:
- blood and urine tests - including a complete blood count, blood chemistries, kidney and liver function tests, and a urinalysis.
- multiple imaging studies - to evaluate primary tumor and determine extent/location of any metastases, including:
- computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) - a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
- x-ray - a diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
- ultrasound (Also called sonography.) - a diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels.
- bone scans - pictures or x-rays taken of the bone after a dye has been injected that is absorbed by bone tissue. These are used to detect tumors and bone abnormalities.
- bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy - a procedure that involves taking a small amount of bone marrow fluid (aspiration) and/or solid bone marrow tissue (called a core biopsy), usually from the hip bones, to be examined for the number, size, and maturity of blood cells and/or abnormal cells.
- biopsy of primary tumor and/or metastatic lesions
- stage 1 - involves a tumor that does not cross the midline of the body, is completely resectable (removable by surgery), and has not spread to other areas of the body. The lymph nodes on the same side of the body as the tumor do not have cancer cells present.
- stage 2A - involves a tumor that does not cross the midline of the body, but is not completely resectable. This stage of tumor has not spread to other areas of the body, and lymph nodes on the same side as the tumor do not have tumor cells present.
- stage 2B - involves a tumor that may or may not be completely resectable, has not spread to other areas of the body, but lymph nodes on the same side of the tumor have tumor cells present. Lymph nodes on the opposite side of the tumor must be negative for tumor cells in this stage of disease.
- stage 3 - involves a tumor that crosses the midline of the body and is not completely resectable. This stage also includes a tumor that does not cross the midline, but the lymph nodes on the opposite side also contain tumor cells.
- stage 4 - involves a tumor that has metastasized to distant lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, skin, and/or other organs (except as defined in stage 4S).
- stage 4S - a child is younger than 12 months and has a tumor that may have metastasized (spread) to liver, skin, and/or bone marrow (includes minimal bone marrow involvement; more extensive bone marrow involvement should be classified as stage 4). The tumor is on one side of the body and is localized. It may have spread to the lymph nodes on the same side of the body.
Treatment for neuroblastoma:Specific treatment for neuroblastoma will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
- surgery (for tumor and/or metastatic resection, and removal of lymph nodes involved)
- radiation therapy
- bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
- retinoid therapy
- supportive care (for the side effects of treatment)
- antibiotics (to prevent/treat infections)
- continuous follow-up care (to determine response to treatment, recurrent disease, and late effects of treatment)
Long-term outlook for a child with neuroblastoma:Prognosis greatly depends on:
- the extent of the disease.
- the size and location of the tumor.
- a presence or absence of metastasis.
- the tumor's response to therapy.
- the age and overall health of your child.
- your child's tolerance of specific medications, procedures, or therapies.
- new developments in treatment.
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